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Вестник БГУ. Гуманитарные исследования Внутренней Азии

Библиографическое описание:
Сандерленд В.
Baron Ungern’s Eurasia // Вестник БГУ. Гуманитарные исследования Внутренней Азии. - 2016. №2. . - С. 32-42.
Заглавие:
Baron Ungern’s Eurasia
Финансирование:
Коды:
DOI: 10.18101/2306-753X-2016-2-32-42УДК: 1(=161.1)
Аннотация:
The article is devoted to problem of nature of the tsarist empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and understands the individuals – and political communities – within it that leaned towards multinational sympathies. This paper takes a small step in these directions by focusing on the Eurasian experience of one revealing tsarist subject – Baron Roman Feodorovich von Ungern-Sternberg (1885-1921).
Ключевые слова:
Baron Ungern, Tsarist Empire, Asia, Mongolia, political communities
Список литературы:
1. N.S. Trubetskoi, “”Obshcheevraziiskii natsionalizm [1927],” in E.A. Vasil’ev (ed.), Russkaia ideia: sbornik proizvedenii russkikh myslitelei (Moscow, 2002). pp. 379-380.

2. The scholarly literature on Ungern is sizeable, though there are no comprehensive biographies and almost no reconstructions of his life prior to the revolution and civil war. The fullest studies are Evgenii Belov, Baron Ungern fon Shternberg: biografiia, ideologiia, voennye pokhody 1920-1921 (Moscow, 2003); and two volumes of annotated documents and memoirs edited by S. L. Kuz’min: Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh (Moscow, 2004) and Legendarnyi baron: neizvestnye stranitsy grazhdanskoi voiny (Moscow, 2004). See also Sergei Khatuntsev, “Buddist s mechom: strannaia sud’ba barona Ungerna,” Rodina, 2004, n.9, pp.51-57; Paul du Quenoy, “Warlordism à la russe: Baron von Ungern-Sternberg’s Anti-Bolshevik Crusade, 1917-1921,” Revolutionary Russia, 2003, v.16, n.2, pp.1-27; Leonid Iuzefovich, Samoderzhets pustyni: fenomen sud’by barona RF. Un-gern-Shternberga (Moscow, 1993); Jean Mabire, Ungern, le dieu de la guerre: la chevauchée du gé-néral-baron Roman Feodorovitch von Ungern-Sternberg, du Golfe de Finlande au désert de Gobi (Paris, 1987).

3. On the grand estate house, see Eesti mõisad: 250 fotot aastaist 1860-1939 / Herrenhäuser in Estland: 250 Ansichten aus den Jahren 1860-1939/Estonian Manor Houses: 250 Photos from 1860-1939 (Tallinn, 2004) p.44. For information on the Ungern-Sternberg family, its most illustrious representatives, and its various genealogical lines, see Rudolf von Ungern-Sternberg, Nachtrichten über das Geschlect der Ungern-Sternberg aus autentischen Quellen gesammelt (Breslau, 1875) 2 vols.; O.M. von Stackelberg, Genealogisches Handbuch der estländischen Ritterschaft (Görlitz, 1931), pp.439-475; Michael von Taube, “Die soziale und politische Stellung des Geschlechts von Ungern in Altlivland,” Baltische Hefte, 1959/60, v.3, pp.187-192 and v.4, pp.246-256; Wilhelm Lenz (ed.), Deutschbaltisches biographisches lexikon 1710-1860 (Cologne and Vienna, 1970). pp.821-829; and Jürgen von Ungern-Sternberg, Neue Nachtrichten über das Geschlect Ungern-Sternberg (1251-2001) (Basel, 2001). There is also considerable unpublished genealogical material in the Ungern-Sternberg family holding in the Eesti Ajalooarhiiv (EA), f.1423, nimistu [opis’] 1. See also the full genealogy compiled for the Estland Registry Commission (Estlandische Matrikelkommission) in 1926: EA, f.1674, n.2, säilik [delo] 207.

4. For the father’s activities, see F.R. Ungern-Sternberg, O vinodelii na iuzhnom beregu Kryma (St. Petersburg, 1888); and his Die Orographie des Kaukasus in Beziehung zur alten Kultur in Vorder-Asien (St. Petersburg, 1891). See also the father’s doctoral dissertation in geology: Untersuchungen über den Finnlaendischen Rapawiki-Granit (Leipzig, 1882). His vita is appended to the back, pp.45-46.

5. EA, f.1187, n.2, s.1801. The dissolution of the marriage appears to have been a mutual deci-sion, though the reasons are unclear. While far from the norm, divorce was “not rare” among the Lu-theran Baltic German nobility in the late 19th century. See Heide W. Whelan, Adapting to Modernity: Family, Caste, and Capitalism among the Baltic German Nobility (Cologne, 1999) pp. 122-123.

6. EA, f.860, n.1, s.1672, leht [list], 1.

7. For a photo of the manor house, see Eesti mõisad, p.176. For a description of the locality in 1912, with the count of verstas, see Spisok naselennykh mest estliandskoi gubernii k 1912-mu godu (Revel’, 1913) p.14. Prior to the turn in his health, Ungern’s father also remarried. His second wife, Maria Pearce, was a British woman, fifteen years his junior. See Stackelberg, Genealogisches Hand-buch der estländischen Ritterschaft, p.465.

8. EA, f.3654, n.1, s.54, l.246-252. By 1913, Ungern’s stepfather had sold the estate and was living on the nearby but much humbler property of Wahhakant (Vahakõnnu).

9. For Ungern’s personal file and grades for part of the 1901-1902 academic year, see Eesti Ajalooarhiiv, f.101, n.1, s.1266.

10. Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Voenno-Morskogo Flota (RGAVMF), f.432, op.1, d.7260, l.13. For Ungern’s grade and conduct book, see RGAVMF, f.432, op.2, d.2162.

11. Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Voenno-Istoricheskii Arkhiv (RGVIA), f.319, op.1, d.630, l.144, 233.

12. Otchet glavnogo upravleniia kazach’ikh voisk za 1908 god (St. Petersburg, 1909) pp.21, 23, 61.

13. Kuz’min (ed.) Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, p.49.

14. P.N. Vrangel’, Zapiski (noiabr’ 1916 g. – noiabr’ 1920 g.) (Moscow, 1991) v.1, p.13. The first English translation of Wrangel’s memoirs puts it even more evocatively: “and there he was [Un-gern], commander of the whole cavalry force of Mongolia!” The Memoirs of Count Wrangel: The Last Commander-in-Chief of the Russian National Army (Sophie Goulston, trans.) (London, 1929) p.7.

15. This is the view suggested by Aleksei Burdukov, a Russian merchant from western Mongo-lia, who met Ungern in Mongolia at the time. See A.V. Burdukov, V staroi i novoi Mongolii: vospo-minaniia, pis’ma (Moscow, 1969) pp.100-102.

16. See, for example, the descriptions in RGVIA, f.5281, op.1, d.1, 2, 25, 26, 59.

17. Peter Gatrell, A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Bloo-mington, Ind., 1999) pp.16-18, passim; Erich Lohr, “The Russian Army and the Jews: Mass Deporta-tion, Hostages, and Violence during World War I,” Russian Review, 2001, v.60, n.3, pp.404-419; Al-exander V. Prusin, “The Russian Military and the Jews in Galicia, 1914-1915,” in Erich Lohr and Marshall Poe (eds.), The Military and Society in Russia, 1450-1917 (Leiden, 2002) pp.525-544; Joshua A. Sanborn, “Unsettling the Empire: Violent Migrations and Social Disaster in Russia during World War I,” Journal of Modern History, 2005, v.77, n.2, pp.290-325. The term “war land” is drawn from Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I (New York, 2000).

18. By May 1917, the loss rate for officers in Ungern’s division (the Ussurii Mounted Division) was approximately 170%. The rate for enlisted men and Cossacks was 200%. See RGVIA, f.3532, op.2, d.216, l.360. On Ungern’s service in special behind-the-lines detachments, see Ol’ga Khoroshi-lova, Voiskovye partizany velikoi voiny (St. Petersburg, 2002) pp.78, 85, 96, 98-101, 103-104, 132, 198.

19. Kuz’min (ed.) Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, pp.55-58.

20. This is Semenov’s account. See his O sebe: vospominaniia, mysli i vyvody (Moscow, 1999) pp.64-65.

21. Joshua A. Sanborn, Drafting the Russian Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905-1925 (DeKalb, Ill., 2003) p.80.

22. Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv chitinskoi oblasti (GACHO), f.329, op.1, d.78. ll.21(b)-24(b).

23. See the interview with Semenov in L. Kozheurov, “Zadacha momenta: beseda s Atamanom Semenovym,” Russkii vostok (Chita), 1919, 5 February, p.2.

24. For Semenov’s order creating the division, see GACHO, f.329, op.1, d.13, l.168.

25. Kuz’min, Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, p.14.

26. GACHO, f.329, op.1, d.29, l.46 (b).

27. The precise sources of Ungern’s anti-Semitism are not clear, but views of Jews as martially unfit, morally corrupt, and disloyal were prevalent in the tsarist officer corps by World War I. See D. Raskin, “Evrei v sostave rossiiskogo ofitserskogo korpusa v xix – nachale xx veka,” in D.A. El’iasevich (ed.), Evrei v Rossii: istoriia i kul’tura; sbornik nauchnykh trudov (St. Petersburg, 1998) pp. 170-174; Lohr, Nationalizing the Russian Empire, p.137 passim; and I. Petrovskii-Shtern, Evrei v russkoi armii 1827-1914 (Moscow, 2003) pp. 353-356. Ataman Semenov, in contrast to Ungern, took a more ambiguous position on the “Jewish question.” See L.V. Kuras, “Ataman Semenov i ‘evreiskii vopros’,” in Istoriia beloi Sibiri: tezisy vtoroi nauchnoi konferentsii (4-5 fevralia 1997) (Kemerovo, 1997) pp.46-47; S.P. Zviagin, “Evrei v usloviiakh ‘Beloi Sibiri’ (1918-1920 gg.),” in Istoriia evreiskikh obshchin Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka: materially pervoi regional’noi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (4-5 noiabria 2000 goda) (Tomsk, 2000) p.81;

28. For a small sampling of these materials, see GACHO, f.334, op.2, d.138; f.334, op.2, d.154; f.334, op.1, d.65.

29. For Ungern’s dismissive view of law (zakonnost’) during wartime, see the additional remarks in his letter mentioned above: GACHO, f.329, op.1, d.29, l.47. In addition to his duties at Dauria, Ungern was dispatched at times by Semenov for parlays in Manchuria and was also placed in charge of the mines at Nerchinsk. He also claimed to have spent eight months (probably in 1919) making contacts with monarchists in Beijing. See: “Ob”iavlenie shtaba Otdel’noi Vostochno-Sibirskoi Armii,” Russkii vostok (Chita), 1919, 9 February, p.1; “Khronika,” Russkii vostok (Chita), 1919, 26 February, p.4; and Kuz’min, Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, p.129

30. Ungern used this phrase in a letter to a leader of the Mongols of Barga in March 1921. See Kuz’min, Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, p. 135.

31. Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi voennyi arkhiv (RGVA), f.39454, op.1, d.9, l.55 (b).

32. RGVA, f.39454, op.1, d.9, l.53 (b).

33. Kuz’min, Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, p. 133.

34. That is, the Turkic and Mongol peoples formerly ruled by Chinggis Khan. See Kuz’min, Baron Ungern v dokumentakh i memuarakh, p. 161.

35. A description and transcript of the trial appears in Sovetskaia Sibir’, 1921, n.196 (13 Sep-tember) p.4; n.197 (14 September) p.1; n.199 (16 September) p.1; n.200 (17 September) p.4; n.201 (18 September) p.3; n.202 (20 September) pp. 2-4.

36. Steven Vertovec and Robin Cohen, “Introduction: Conceiving Cosmopolitanism,” in their edited volume Conceiving Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Context, and Practice (New York, 2002) pp.1-22.